The morphology of the exosomes was observed by means of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FEI Tecnai 12, Philips, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Briefly, exosomes were fixed on a copper grid with 4% paraformaldehyde. The copper grid was dried at room temperature for 10 minutes. The sample was subjected to staining with 2% uranyl acetate, drying for duration of 10 minutes, followed by observation at 100 KV. The size distribution of exosomes was analysed by measuring the Brownian motion rate using a Nanosight LM20 system equipped with fast video capture and particle tracking software (Nanosight, Amesbury, UK). Exosomal markers CD63, CD81 and TSG101 were determined by Western blot analysis.

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