Due to the low number of subjects tested (N = 10), a Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the association between sex and the presence of Wormian bone, while a binary logistic regression was used to study the incidence of Wormian bone according to the age of the subject.

For the continuous variables of BMD, Stiffness S, Normalised Stiffness NS and Elastic modulus E, a normality test was performed before conducting a 2-sample t-test of the two groups of samples: with and without Wormian bone. The interdependence of samples (N = 56) was evaluated by calculating the interclass correlation coefficient. As the intra and inter-subject correlation was low (0.035 and 0.264 respectively, with p-values of 0.264 for both cases), samples were divided only according to the presence or absence of Wormian bone and the origin, or ‘subject’ from which the sample was extracted, was ignored. In this statistical test we were assessing the effect of the presence of Wormian bone on the mechanical behaviour of the sample, therefore the ‘subject’ is not relevant.

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