Four groups of PC (3), CP (3), PCL (3) and PNET (3) patients with complete clinical information and available peripheral blood samples in Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School were enrolled in this study. 3 PC patients in our study had undergone surgeries in the General Surgery Department in our hospital. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School. All clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, tumour stage, alcohol intake, smoking history and prognostic information were retrospectively collected from the patient records. All the data collection, data analysis and experiments were carried out in accordance with the approved protocol.

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