The GSVA package in R was applied to estimate the Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways that correlated with the risk signature. The GSVA package scored the GO biological processes and KEGG pathways in each sample, and then by comparing the score differences in different risk groups, we identified the different biological processes enriched in the high‐ and low‐risk groups. The limma package in R was adopted to identify differentially expressed genes and gene sets in different groups. To further verify the GO processes and KEGG pathways related to the signature, GO and KEGG analyses were performed for the differentially expressed genes using the clusterProfiler package in R. All heat maps were drawn using the Pheatmap package in R.

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