GeneCards (https://www.genecards.org/) is a searchable, integrative database that provides comprehensive, user‐friendly information on all annotated and predicted human genes. ER stress‐related genes were extracted from GeneCards, and genes with a relevance score ≥7 were selected. TCGA RNA‐seq transcriptome data and clinical information were obtained from TCGA database (http://cancergemome.nih.gov/). The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) mRNA expression data (mRNAseq_325 and mRNA‐array) and corresponding clinicopathological features were collected from the CGGA database (http://www.cgga.org.cn). The GSE16011 data set was procured from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). Raw data were processed via the R package, affy, and robust multi‐array analysis (RMA) was used for background correction and normalization. Biospecimens and clinical data from related research were used as supplements. 23 Patient characteristics, including detailed data for each research object, are shown in Table S1.

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