All statistical analyses were performed by utilizing GraphPad Prism 7.0 software (GraphPad). All results were presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD, represented by error bar). Comparisons of two different groups were accomplished by making use of Student's t tests, and comparisons of multiple groups were accomplished by one‑way ANOVA with Bonferroni's test being utilized as a post hoc test. P < .05 was taken into consideration to show a statistically significant difference.

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