The mice were anaesthetized with 3% isoflurane and continuously monitored for heart rate, breathing and temperature. Transthoracic two‐dimensional M‐mode echocardiography was performed on anesthetized mice using Vevo770 (VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada) equipped with a 30‐MHz transducer. Left ventricular dimensions were measured according to the American Society for Echocardiography leading‐edge method from at least three consecutive cardiac cycles. The echocardiography parameters included cardiac output (CO), ratio of mitral valve E velocity to A velocity (MV E/A), ratio of mitral valve E velocity to E′ velocity (MV E/E′), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), left ventricular volume at systole/diastole (LV Vol; s/d), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at systole/diastole (LVPW; s/d) and left ventricular internal dimension at systole/diastole (LVID; s/d).

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