The sample size is based on the binary, primary outcome of major P-NCD at 3 months with the following assumptions and considerations:

α=0.05, two-sided and β=0.2.

Estimated incidence of major P-NCD at 3 months with standard care 25%.

Estimated effect size of DEX 20% (relative risk reduction 20% and absolute risk reduction 5% for major P-NCD).

This yields a sample size of 1092 per group (2184 total). To account for loss to follow-up (estimated at ~10%), 1200 participants per group (2400 total) will be recruited. There is no minimally clinically important difference for the incidence of P-NCD. The estimated effect size was selected as a balance between clinical relevance and a pragmatic sample size.

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