Survey dissemination and target population
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Living with systemic lupus erythematosus in 2020: a European patient survey
Lupus Sci Med, Apr 13, 2021; DOI: 10.1136/lupus-2020-000469

The survey was made available to European patients with lupus both through a unique link to a multilingual start page on lupus Europe’s website ( or through national language–specific direct access links. Data were collected via an anonymous online survey and included individuals with self-reported physician’s diagnosis of SLE. From a total of 5922 answers (figure 1), 137 were excluded because the country was out of the study scope, 271 did not state their country, 207 were identified as duplicate records, 54 declared they had no lupus, 29 reported drug-induced lupus,5 342 had cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) only, 256 selected the “lupus-like disease” option (no formal lupus diagnosis) and 251 did not mention any specific diagnosis. The remaining 4375 participants reported having physician’s diagnosis of SLE and their data were retained for further analysis.

Study flow chart. CLE, Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus.

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