Non-DEX-based sedation protocols, at the discretion of the attending physician in the ICU, include fentanyl, midazolam or propofol while intubated. In extubated patients still in the ICU, this could also include antipsychotics such as quetiapine and haloperidol. All α2R agonist including DEX and clonidine are precluded from use.

Intraoperative anaesthetic care (induction and maintenance medications/dosing) is at the discretion of the attending anaesthesiologist with restrictions precluding the use of intraoperative α2R agonist in participants randomised to the control group.

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