Measures of pain intensity and/or changes in pain intensity (pain relief).

HRV within the first 30 days after non-cardiac surgery in humans.

Change from preoperative baseline HRV within the first 30 days after non-cardiac surgery in humans.

Statistical assessment of the association between (1) and (2) or between (1) and (3).

Cardiovascular events (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke and pulmonary embolism).

Other autonomic parameters (eg, skin conductance level and fluctuations, photoplethysmographic pulse wave amplitude and catecholamine levels).

Use of analgesics and differences in analgesia between study groups.

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