Studies of any design that include measures of pain intensity or pain relief within the first 30 days after non-cardiac surgery.

Pain intensity or pain relief quantified using a validated measurement instrument (eg, 0–10 numerical rating scale or 0–100 mm visual analogue scale for pain intensity; category scale for pain relief).

HRV measurements such as frequency bands, ratios of frequency bands, time indices of HRV and total power. Frequency bands include LF power (0.04–0.015 Hz), HF power (0.15–0.45 Hz) or ratios of LF/HF or HF/LF. Time domain indices of HRV include SD of NN intervals, SD of the averages of NN intervals, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals and SD of differences between adjacent NN intervals.

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