Frailty as measured by CFS. According to this scale, the levels of frailty range from robust (score 1), to those who are completely dependent on others (score 7), to terminal patients (score 9). A score of 5 or more is indicative of frailty, and a score of 4 is considered a pre-frailty state. Patients scoring 1–3 are considered healthy or robust (Rockwood et al., 2005).

The data regarding secondary variables included demographic information (age, gender); previous medical history and comorbidities; clinical variables (from arrival at the emergency room to hospital admission); laboratory test findings; and diagnostic imaging performance and results.

The main variables of the study were based on patients’ outcomes (e.g., the presence of complications, need for ICU admission, days of stay, mortality) and on a frailty assessment using the CFS.

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