Frailty as measured by CFS. According to this scale, the levels of frailty range from robust (score 1), to those who are completely dependent on others (score 7), to terminal patients (score 9). A score of 5 or more is indicative of frailty, and a score of 4 is considered a pre-frailty state. Patients scoring 1–3 are considered healthy or robust (Rockwood et al., 2005).

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