The following two factors mentioned in the introduction were included as moderators in the present meta-analysis. (1) Type of sport: In this meta-analysis, sports were classified as interceptive (or coactive), independent (or propulsive), or strategic (or interactive or invasive) to determine the effect of sport type on expert/nonexpert comparisons (Mann et al., 2007). A sport classified as independent included characteristics such as being closed, self-paced, and aiming at a target (e.g., gymnastics, rock climbing, and swimming). (2) Type of prime stimulus: Since subliminal prime stimuli and supraliminal prime stimuli lead to different priming effects (Meng et al., 2019), whether the prime is visible or not was also considered as a significant moderator of the effect sizes in priming tasks (Bussche, Noortgate & Reynvoet, 2009). Therefore, whether there is a general difference in effect size caused by different types of prime stimuli in the priming paradigm was distinguished. The generation of the effect value was based on independent samples, and each independent sample was coded once. If a study contained multiple independent samples, multiple coding was performed accordingly.

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