Assessment of collateral circulation was graded as previously described by the Rentrop score [16]: Grade 0 (no collaterals), Grade 1 (collaterals filling only side branches of the recipient artery), Grade 2 (collaterals partially filling the occluded artery trunk), Grade 3 (collaterals completely filling the occluded vessel trunk). For Data analysis, grade 0 or 1 collaterals were considered a poorly developed collateral group whereas grade 2 or 3 collaterals were considered a well-developed collateral group [16]. Analyses were done by two independent interventionists who were blinded to all data. In case of inconsistency, the final decision was made by consensus.

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