Component 1a: mapping the spatial patterns of respiratory ERV incidence rates

Geographic Information System software was used to create maps representing the spatial patterns of ERV incidence rates for respiratory health. ERV incidence rates for all zip codes in the study area were computed as a ratio of the total number of patients per age-group (0–18, 19–64, 65 and older) visiting the ER for respiratory health issues to the total patient visits to the ER. We do not normalize by total zip code population because we assume that ERV rates by population are skewed due to access to facilities and socioeconomic status (SES). We use the age distribution characteristics of the entire region because we assume age estimates vary within zip code over time and with large age stratification groups used in this study, the differences are negligible.

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