Descriptive statistics such as percentages, mean, median, standard deviation, and interquartile range were used. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical data. An independent sample t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare continuous data. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant independent factors associated with SSIs. Odds ratios [ORs] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs] were expressed relative to a reference baseline category. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS [IBM SPSS Statistics, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois].

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