This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China. The ethics committee of institution approved this study and waived the need for informed consent on March 13, 2019 (PJ2018-066). This study was registered with the China Clinical Trials Registry on March 28, 2019 (ChiCTR1900022175). From January 2009 to December 2018. Antimicrobial catheters were not used in this ICU. According to the clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), catheter cultures were performed when a catheter was removed due to a suspected CRBSI. [12] We analyzed all data from patients aged ≥ 18 years who had suspected CRBSIs who had cultures performed of their catheter tips. The following exclusion criteria were used: malignant blood disease, chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the same period, length of stay less than 48 h, serious sepsis diagnosed on admission, CRBSI diagnosed of the old catheter after the reinsertion of new catheter, implantation of intravascular foreign bodies within the past month, and human immunodeficiency virus (Fig. 1).

Flow diagram and control patients for analysis

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