This study is an exploratory analysis of secondary data derived from the 2014 national demographic health survey (DHS) database. DHS is designed to provide estimates of national and regional health indicators for the 10 districts of Lesotho. The sampling frame used for the 2014 LDHS is an updated frame from the 2006 Lesotho Population and Housing Census (PHC) provided by the Lesotho Bureau of Statistics (BOS). The sampling frame excluded nomadic and institutional populations such as persons in hotels, barracks, and prisons.

The 2014 LDHS followed a two-stage sample design and was intended to allow estimates of key indicators at the national level as well as in urban and rural areas, four ecological zones, and each of Lesotho´s 10 districts [36]. The first stage involved selecting sample points (clusters) consisting of enumeration areas (EAs) delineated for the 2006 PHC [36]. A total of 400 out 4000 clusters were selected, 118 in urban areas and 282 in rural areas. The second stage involved systematic sampling of households. A household listing operation was undertaken in all of the selected EAs in July 2014, and households to be included in the survey were randomly selected from these lists [36]. A total of 25 households were selected from each sample point, for a total sample size of 9,942 [36].

We included all women aged 15-49 years for whom we had complete data on all the variables-which included the outcome and independent variables described below. As a result, out of 9,942 participants, there were 6621 women and 2931 were men. From a sample of 6,621 women, only 6187 were eligible for this study because they had knowledge of undertaking either a CBE or BSE in the last 12 months as shown in Figure 1. The other 434 (6621-6187) were not aware of whether they undertook a CBE or BSE in the last 12 months.

flow of respondents used in the analysis

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