Cell migration and invasion were determined using transwell chambers with 8 μm polycarbonate membrane filters (Corning, Corning, NY, USA). The transfected Caki-1 and 786-O cells were injected into the upper chamber. Meanwhile, medium with 10% FBS was added as an attractant in the lower chamber. After 24 h of culture, the cells were fixed with methanol and stained with 0.1% crystal violet (Solarbio). The migrated cells were counted under a microscope at 100× magnification. For cell invasion test, the difference was that transwell chamber was pre-coated with Matrigel (Corning).

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