SEER *Stat software (version 8.3.5) was used to extract data. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: brain metastasis and no brain metastasis. Descriptive analysis was conducted to evaluate the distribution of demographic variables, presence of visceral metastasis, grading, and treatment. Differences of categorical variables between the 2 groups were assessed using the chi-squared test. Overall survival distribution was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used for comparison of survival distributions across different subgroups. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using the Cox regression model. All tests were 2-sided, and a P value of <0.05 was defined as statistically significant.

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