Participants were asked to wear an ActivPAL (PAL Technologies, LTD; Glasgow, UK) for three consecutive days to establish baseline measures of daily reclining, sitting, standing, and walking. The ActivPAL is small (53 × 35 × 7 mm), light-weight (15 g) and is attached to the thigh with tegaderm, thereby making it waterproof during bathing. The ActivPAL is capable of recording continuously, and the stored activity profile is retrieved and processed afterward using a personal computer. Thus, participants were blinded from their actual physical activity data during data collection. Data for the different behaviors are expressed as averaged hours/day of sitting, standing, reclining (while awake), and reclining (while sleeping), steps/day or MET-hrs/day. For reference, a metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is the ratio of the metabolic (i.e., energy) cost of a given activity to the resting metabolic rate, and often is used as an indicator of intensity. An activity costing 5 METs (e.g., brisk walking) is performed at 5 times the resting metabolic rate. MET-h/day is a summary measure of physical activity volume throughout the day, and reflects both the intensity and duration of different activities. As this is a rural, agricultural community, there was little day-to-day variation in work activity. Therefore, ActivPAL data were collected on any day of the week, weekdays or weekend days.

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