Acute cellular rejection (ACR) was scored using the Banff criteria. AMR was serologically diagnosed by acute tissue injuries, such as vascular inflammation and bile duct inflammation damage, and significantly increased titers of specific antibodies and histologically diagnosed by C4d staining [17]. Hepatic arterial stenosis was defined by visualizing Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Biliary leakage was suspected with the persistent drainage of bile from the abdominal cavity and diagnosed by postoperative cholangiography. Bile duct anastomotic stenosis was diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). ITBL was suspected based on laboratory examinations and elevated levels of serum ALP and γ-GGT and diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and MRCP [18, 19]. Post-transplant septic shock was diagnosed in patients who suffered from severe sepsis, which was determined by a positive culture of pathogenic forms of bacteria or fungi, with hyperlactatemia and obvious hemodynamic changes requiring vasopressor therapy.

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