For all epistaxis patients, the data provided demographic information such as age and sex. Further, all outpatient diagnoses were available for the respective quarter in which the epistaxis was diagnosed. Only diagnoses coded with the diagnostic certainty “secured” were considered. These diagnoses were examined on two levels: (i) we assessed predefined comorbidities coded in the same quarter as the epistaxis (i.e. recorded by all physicians consulted by the patient in the respective quarter), (ii) we determined predefined conditions and the number of different ICD codes (on the 5-digit level) recorded with the epistaxis (i.e. with the same case number as described above).

Antithrombotic agents (B01 according to the anatomical-therapeutic-chemical (ATC) code) prescribed and reimbursed by the SHI were available for all epistaxis cases. Based on the prescription date and the prescribed number of defined daily doses (DDD), an epistaxis case was considered being currently treated with antithrombotic agents if he or she had respective medication on at last 1 day of the quarter of the epistaxis diagnosis.

Lastly, we assessed predefined fee positions according to the uniform fee position regulation (EBM) coded with an epistaxis case (i.e. with the same case number).

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