Three hundred thousand cells/tube were collected by centrifugation at 1500 rpm for 5 min. Pellets were incubated in 1 mL DMEM, 2.25 g/L glucose (Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, ON, Canada), 5% FBS, 5 μM ascorbic acid, 1% GlutaMAX, 0.5% Gentamicin (Thermo Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Pellets were left in DMEM for 4 days to form and stabilize (in pre-treatment media) and then treated with 100 μM o-vanillin (Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, ON, Canada) for 4 days; meanwhile, pellets in the control group stayed in DMEM with vehicle 0.01% DMSO (Sigma-Aldrich, Oakville, ON, Canada). Following the treatment period, pellets from both groups were cultured for 21 days and their culture media was collected every 4 days and pooled as post-treatment media.

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