Structured Query Language (SQL) with PostgreSQL (version 9.6) was used to extract data from MIMIC-III. Demographics (sex, age, ethnicity), ICU type, admission group (elective and emergency), reasons for ICU admission were extracted for adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to ICU. The severity of illness score was evaluated by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [14], Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII) [15], Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS) [16], Oxford Acute Severity of Illness Score (OASIS) [17] and Acute Physiology Score III (APS III) [18]. For parameters of these five scoring systems, only data within 24 h after ICU admission were extracted and missing components for calculation were treated as normal (usually zero). Comorbidities were evaluated using the Elixhauser comorbidity system which scores a series of comorbid diseases and conditions according to the severity of organ decompensation and prognostic impact [19], the higher the score, the worse the patient’s health. Other extracted data included mechanical ventilation (MV), vasopressor usage, renal replacement therapy (RRT), sepsis, hospital infection. The endpoints of our study were 28-day, 90-day, 365-day and 1095-day survive after ICU admission.

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