As multiple subjects mapped to a single Rosetta question, each of these subjects tended to have varying types of responses. The ADI-R and ADOS-2 generally have descriptive answer choices that relate to the quality of behavior being assessed, whereas the remaining assessments have answer choices on a Likert scale referring to the frequency of that behavior. For the last step in this process, these differences had to be consolidated to create a new, consistent coding of answer choices that each of the subject responses could be mapped to, retaining as much of the function of the response nuances as possible.

In the example discussed in the section above, five different instruments were mapped to the question about adaptability to change and each of them was asked in a slightly different way with different answer choices. The corresponding ADI-R subjects had four descriptive answer choices, whereas the BRIEF2 and CBCL had three answer choices on a frequency scale, and the BASC-3 and SRS-2 had four answer choices on a frequency scale, shown in Table 3.

Examples of Answer Choices for Subjects Mapped to Routine Change Question

The subject matter experts crafted de novo answer choices for Rosetta questions such that, where appropriate, descriptive quality-based responses were combined with the frequency responses typical of instruments like BASC-3 and BRIEF2. The subject matter experts were given the number of responses required for a particular question, as well as the type of responses required based on the instrument subjects that were being mapped to each Rosetta question. When subjects from BRIEF2 or CBCL mapped to a Rosetta question, three answer codes were created in Rosetta because that was the least amount of responses that would potentially be mapped if the child only had the BRIEF2 or CBCL instruments assessed. This was decided because it could not be inferred how a parent would have responded if given more answer choices. The new answer choices for this particular question that combined frequency and quality were as follows: 1=Rarely or never; 2=Sometimes, but with little interference in family life; and 3=Often, and with some interference with family life.

We then mapped each of the existing instrument’s answer choices to the Rosetta answer codes based on how the subjects and answer choices overlapped with the phrasing of the Rosetta question and answer codes as shown in Fig. 2. Based on the phrasing of the Rosetta question and answers, the subjects from BRIEF-2 and CBCL had answer choices that were easily mapped one-to-one to the Rosetta answer choices. However, the other three instruments resulted in a slightly more complicated mapping of answer choices. The ADI-R had four descriptive answer choices to be mapped to the three Rosetta answer choices. Based on the severity of the answer choices in the ADI-R, the first two answer choices were mapped one-to-one with the Rosetta answer choices and the two most severe answer choices in the ADI-R were mapped to the most severe Rosetta answer choice with a code of 3. A similar process was used to map the four answer choices when mapping the SRS-2 and BASC-3 to the three Rosetta answer choices.

Example of Answer Choice Mapping for Adaptability, Routine Change question. Sample answer codes from existing instruments shown in Table 3 are in the boxes surrounding the Rosetta answer choices in the center circle. The mapping of each existing instrument answer choice to the corresponding Rosetta answer choice is shown by the arrow

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