All patients underwent comprehensive two-dimensional echocardiography within 3 months of initial CCTA. Hypertrophic alteration of the LV structure was quantified based on LVMI and RWT by echocardiography [14]. LVMI was estimated using a standard formula with LV cavity dimension and wall thickness at end-diastole and indexed to body surface areas. Linear internal measurement of the LV and its wall was performed in the parasternal long-axis view, and the values were obtained perpendicular to the long axis of the LV at or immediately below the level of the mitral valve leaflet tips [14]. LV mass index was calculated using the following equation:

LV mass = 0.8 × 1.04 × {[LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) + interventricular septal wall thickness + LV posterior wall thickness]3 − LVEDD3} + 0.6

LV mass index = LV mass/body surface area

RWT was calculated as two times the posterior wall thickness divided by the LV diastolic diameter. Increased LVMI was defined as LVMI > 95 g/m2 in women and > 115 g/m2 in men, and the cutoff for abnormal RWT was > 0.42, in both women and men [14]. Normal LV geometry was defined as normal LVMI and RWT. Abnormal LV geometry was defined as a composite of concentric remodeling (normal LVMI and increased RWT), eccentric hypertrophy (increased LVMI and normal RWT), and concentric hypertrophy (increased LVMI and RWT).

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