The potential confounding variables consisted of demographic, physical condition, and other covariates [6]. Demographic variables included age, gender (male and female), current residence (urban and rural), current marital status (currently married and living with spouse; widowed; never married, separated and divorced), self-rated economic status (good, average, bad), income, years of schooling, number of living children and co-residence (whether or not living with children). Additionally, whether the older individual has a chronic disease (Yes and No) and his Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is limited (Limited and Not limited) were taken as physical condition variables. Apart from intergenerational support within the family, other covariates like social security insurance, medical insurance, old-age insurance and community service, either provided by the government or private corporation, would offer older adults a sense of security in the aging life so as to increase their wellbeing.

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