The awake-local anesthesia group received the local infiltration anesthesia after the behavior induction. Children under 4 years old were given 2% lidocaine hydrochloride injection (5 ml: 0.1 g, Southwest Pharmaceutical Co.; SFDA no.H50020038), with the total dose no more than 4 mg/Kg. Children aged 4 years and older were given 4% articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injection (1.7 ml: 68 mg, Produits Dentaires Pierre Rolland; SFDA no.H20140732), with the maximum dosage not exceeding 5 mg/Kg.

The general anesthesia group only received sevoflurane (120 ml, Shanghai Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co.; SFDA no.H20070172) for induction and maintenance. After induction with 5 L / min oxygen and 8% sevoflurane through the mask, the anesthetists chose and inserted the modified first-generation single-lumen laryngeal mask airway of the appropriate model. Anesthetists adjusted sevoflurane concentration during maintenance according to vital signs and Bispectral Index (the majority between 40 and 60 for the suitable depth of anesthesia), mostly 2.5 to 3.5% with a 2 L / min mixture of air and oxygen. In the whole process, the patients retained spontaneous breathing, and PetCO2 was usually maintained within 35 to 45 mmHg. Supplemental opioids, benzodiazepines, and other general anesthetics were not allowed, but local anesthetics were permitted to provide analgesia with the same dose as the local anesthesia group. There was postanesthesia care for 2 h after surgery. They were allowed to leave the hospital after the modified Aldrete score reached 10 points.

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