There were four key explanatory variables in this study: provide financial support, receive financial, instrumental and emotional support (as three types of intergenerational support flowing in opposite directions). Providing financial support was evaluated by stating the amount of money (including cash and value of materials) that the elder gave last year to his children and their spouses both living and not living with him; while receiving financial support was estimated by such asset older adults received in turn. Receiving instrumental support was assessed by primary caregiver when the elder need assistance in daily activities and the number of hours that adult children help him last week. Receiving emotional support was evaluated by the person to whom older adults usually talk frequently in daily life and whom they talk first when they need to share their thoughts. Choices on adult children, grandchildren and their spouses would be regarded as receiving the support. All four variables were divided into “Yes” and “No” to show whether the intergenerational support was provided to the recipient. Furthermore, in order to explore the interacting associations among receiving three types of support, we generated a new variable as combination of the three types of support: receiving none of the supports (1); receiving only one type of support among “financial (2), instrumental (3), emotional (4)”; receiving two types of the three categories: “financial and instrumental (5), financial and emotional (6), instrumental and emotional (7)”; and receiving all the three types (8).

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