In this study, we used life satisfaction and psychological health as important indicators to reflect the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Life satisfaction was assessed by asking respondents to rate their lives at present on a five-point scale -- very good (1) to very bad (5). We recoded the items and defined respondents who chose “, bad, very bad” regarding their life satisfaction as bad (0), who chose “very good, good, average” regarding their life satisfaction as good (1). Psychological health of the older adults is measured by the depression symptom. The 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D) was adopted to measure the depression symptom, scoring from 0 to 30 with a cutoff point of 10, to distinguish depressive (0) and normal groups (1) [23].

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