The data for this study was used from the 2018 Chinese longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), the ongoing national representative longitudinal survey established in 1998. Aiming to shed new light and better understanding of the determinants of healthy longevity of human beings, provide information evidence for scientific research as well as health and population-aging policy, the CLHLS has conducted seven waves, covering 22 of the 31 provinces in China and using a stratified multistage cluster sampling design [19]. It conducted a super-proportional sampling on the male and urban older groups. We did not apply sampling weights in the regression models because the CLHLS weight variable was unable to reflect the national population distributions with respect to variables other than age, sex, and urban/rural residence [20, 21].

A total of 15,874 older adults were interviewed (median age 85 years, females making up 56, and 22% of these were interviewed in earlier waves). This study focused on the 8794 oldest-old adults aged 80 or over (mean (M) = 91.46; standard deviation (SD) = 7.60). Missing values and data of answers like “don’t know”, “not applicable” were excluded out of the sample. Moreover, some samples with “unable to answer” may bring bias into our measures of subjective wellbeing, since the respondents cannot evaluate their life and personality because of impairment of cognitive function. Diseases related to impairment of cognitive function include dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and cerebrovascular disease [22]. The Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D cognition) in CLHLS questionnaire was used to determined dementia if none of the questions was answered correctly. Therefore, respondents of “unable to answer” with impairment of cognitive function were excluded out of our sample.

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