Informal caregivers were asked to state how the current situation affects their feelings (i.e., helplessness, emotionally stressful conflicts with the care receiver, feelings of despair, feelings of anger and rage) in relation to the care situation (i.e., decreased/no change/increased/not specified). Items were adapted from the Sense of Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) [28] which measures different burdens for informal caregivers, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) [29]. The score ranges from 4 to 12 with higher results indicating more negative feelings due to COVID-19.

Informal caregivers where asked whether caregiving by themselves 1) has stopped completely; 2) decreased; 3) hardly changed or 4) increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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