Self-reported health was assessed using the visual analogue scale from the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire [47] where participants rate their current health on a scale from 0 to 100 (0 = worst possible health–100 = best possible health). Previous long-term sick leave was assessed by asking participants whether in their working life they previously had been on sick leave that lasted for more than 8 weeks.

Four self-developed single-item questions were used to assess workplace characteristics. Workplace adjustment latitude was examined with the question “To what degree do you feel your workplace facilitates work adjustments?”. Response options ranged from 1 (to a very low degree) to 10 (to a very high degree). Psychosocial work environment was examined by asking “How would you rate the psychosocial work environment at work? (1 is very bad and 10 is very good)”. A question querying “To what degree are you able to plan your own work? (1 is to a very small degree and 10 is to a very large degree)” was used to assess work autonomy. Coping with work demands was assessed using the question “How well do you feel you cope with the demands of your work? (1 is very badly and 10 is very well)”.

Resilience was assessed using the Resilience Scale for Adults [48, 49]. The scale consists of 33 questions with six subscales assessing the individual’s social competence, social resources, planned future, family cohesion, structured style and perception of self on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high). The scale is scored with a mean or sum score of the 33 items to estimate psychological resilience [50]. The mean score was used in the present study.

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