The three particle fractions (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) were analyzed using a LabRam 300 spectrometer (Jobin-Yvon) featuring an Olympus confocal microscope and an Andor BRDD Du401 CCD detector. According to the color of the particle, two different objectives (×50 or ×100 magnification) had adopted.

The maximum powers of the induced beam laser on the sample were 5 mW (green laser) and 30 mW (red laser). From one sample to another, the integration times were between 5 s and 50 s. Two spectral databases were used for matching, i.e., a personal library, which used Thermo Spectra 2.0 software, and a commercially available database (OmnicSpectra software, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA).

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