For our experiments, atmospheric particulates were collected over the terrace of the Medical-Social Center of Civil Protection (ca. 5 m over soil) at Bab Ezzouar city, Algiers (36° 43′ 00″ N, 3° 11′ 00″ E, see Fig. Fig.1).1). Bab Ezzouar city is one of Algiers’ fastest-growing municipalities, characterized by a high population density (12,045 inhabitants/km2; NOS 2008). It includes many hotels and malls. The city is served by the Algiers train and tramway lines, the former having a station near to collection point (<100 m). Moreover, Bab Ezzouar lies very close to the Algiers international airport, and includes one of the largest universities in Africa, University of Science and Technology Houary Boumedienne of Bab Ezzouar, USTHB. Moreover, the study area is surrounded by many industrial districts, such us the Oued Smar and Dar El Beida. Finally, the sampling site is characterized by huge road traffic.

Map of sampling site

Meteorological data records were obtained from the weather station DAAG (36° 68‵ N, 3° 25‵ E), located at Dar El Beida, approximately 2 km from our study site (NOM 2019 ). The meteorological data included wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature (Table (Table1).1). Several studies have shown the influence of meteorological conditions on the characteristics and dispersion of fine particles. In this study, specific meteorological factors were chosen, including wind speed, relative humidity and temperature, as wind data can be used to determine the area of emissions and identify the source of pollutants. Temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity play an important role in many chemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. High and low temperature are linked with intensive and decreased convection of pollutants respectively which resulting in increased concentrations of particles in the atmosphere. In addition, higher rates of RH lead to higher PM concentrations, so air pollution events such as thermal inversion and days with high pollutant concentrations can be predicted. Meteorological parameters were studied in order to investigate seasonal variations in PM (Deng et al. 2012).

Meteorological data for the year 2018

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