We collected the cumulative number of confirmed deaths from COVID-19 by age from the L’Institut National d’études Démographiques (INED). European and North American countries in the INED database included: Austria, Belgium, England and Wales, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (US). INED compiles data from each country’s health ministry on a weekly basis. For example, the source of data for France is Santé Publique France (Public Health France). Although Canada was not included in the INED database, the Government of Canada publishes the cumulative number of confirmed deaths from COVID-19 by age directly on its official COVID-19 data dashboard (Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Epidemiology update, 2021). We collected age-specific population counts in 2019 for each country (except Canada) from the INED database; age-specific population counts in 2019 for Canada came from the Human Mortality Database. We also collected total population counts in 2020 for each country projected by the United Nations (UN).

We collected death counts by leading causes of death in 2017 (the most recent year for which cause-specific mortality data was available) for each European Union (EU) country from Eurostat, the statistical office of the EU (Causes of Death (Hlth_cdeath), 2020). We collected similar cause-specific death counts for Canada from Statistics Canada, England and Wales from the Office for National Statistics, Scotland from the National Records Scotland, and the US from the National Center for Health Statistics. Finally, we collected all-cause death rates in 2017 for each country from the Human Mortality Database.

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