The pooled incidence proportion of adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration was estimated using a random effects model and the ‘metaprop’ package [22] in Stata version 16.1 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Data from studies in adults were pooled separately to those in children. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and Cochran’s Q test. Since proportion estimates were at or close to the border of permissible values (no or very few adverse events reported), the Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation was used for the pooled estimate [22]. The exact binomial method was used to calculate the study specific confidence intervals which guarantees admissible values [22]. Possible sources of heterogeneity were examined using sub-group analyses and metaprop’s test of heterogeneity between groups [22]. Publication bias was assessed through inspection of a funnel plot and Begg’s test. Statistical significance was denoted by p < 0.05.

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