For an administration schedule of measures, please see Table S1. All of the self-report measures have been found to be psychometrically reliable and valid. All measures, with the exception of the caregiver reports of ACEs, were reported by adolescents. The ACEs scale [59] assessed instances of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect; and household dysfunction (divorce, parental mental illness, domestic violence, parent incarceration). The scale contains 10 questions rated on a yes-no basis. A composite ACEs score was calculated by totaling all instances of an affirmative answer across caretaker (screening) and adolescent reports (baseline and follow-up). Additionally, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ [71]) provided a measure of severity of exposure to childhood trauma. The CTQ comprises of five subscales, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. The CTQ contains 25 questions (5 each of the aforementioned subscales) as well as an additional 3 questions to assess denial. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale (0 = never true, 5 = very often true) with scores ranging between 25 to 125.

Adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form (MFQ-SF [61]). This 13-item questionnaire is derived from the DSM-III-R criteria for depression and assessed phrases regarding how the subject has been feeling or acting. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert scale (0 = not true, 1 = sometimes, 2 = true), with scores ranging from zero to 26. The Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale (AADIS [72]) measured adolescents’ history of and/or current substance use, potential interference with life, and stigma. First, 13 substances are rated on an 8-point scale for frequency of use (0 = never used, 7 = several times a day), with scores ranging from zero to 84 for frequency of total use. Further questions about most recent use and usage effects are then asked. Examples of these items include ‘How do you get your alcohol or drugs?’ and ‘Why did you take your first drink or first use drugs?’ The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 10 item (CD-RISC 10 [73]) assessed stress coping abilities. Scores range from zero to 40, with lower indicating lower levels of resilience. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale – Adolescent (MAAS-A [74]) measured intrapersonal awareness across 14 items (1 = almost always, 6 = almost never), with scores ranging from 14 to 84. Notably, the MAAS-A has been found to be sensitive to change in mindfulness as a result of topics covered in mindfulness interventions [75].

Finally, the MBSR-T group alone completed the Homework Rating Scale (HRS [76]) to assess between-session compliance with intervention materials. Twelve items were rated (0 = none, 4 = all) for score ranges of zero to 48. MBSR-T participants also completed the Working Alliance Inventory for Children and Adolescents (WAI-CA [64]) to assess therapeutic agreement on goals and tasks of therapy, as well as the development of affective bond. A total score is also derived. Scores range from four to 20 for each subscale and 12–60 for the total scale score, with higher scores indicating greater alliance.

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