When tumor sizes reached 2×2 mm, 60 μL of PHSA-ICG and PHSA-ICG-TAT (corresponding to 30 μM ICG) or 30 μM ICG was intratumorally injected into the tail veins of mice. After 24 h, the tumor of each mouse was exposed to a light source at a wavelength of 808 nm for 5 min (power density: 1 W/cm2; irradiation power: 2.5 W; irradiation area: 2.5 cm2). Images were captured to record changes in tumor size. Tumor sizes were measured using a caliper every day after the treatment. Tumor volumes (V) were calculated using the following equation: V = X × Y2/2, where X and Y are the longer and shorter diameters (mm) of the tumor, respectively. Seven days after laser irradiation, tumor tissues of mice were collected for the pathological observation of H&E staining.

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