Participants were invited to complete a structured face-to-face questionnaire, which was developed based on a review of the literature10,30 and consultation from diabetes specialists and clinical pharmacists in endocrinology. The questionnaire contents included: (1) basic information of participants, such as residence, gender, age, marital status, education, household income, family size and health insurance status; (2) disease-related information of participants, including duration of diagnosis, diabetes complication(s), treatment regimens and blood glucose control status; (3) cognitive variables, including patients’ knowledge about blood glucose control and attitude to blood glucose monitoring; (4) healthcare utilization, such as the blood glucose tests and inpatient health services. To ensure the quality of the survey, all data collectors were rigorously trained and qualified for questionnaire delivery, and quality supervisors reviewed all completed questionnaires after each interview.

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