Neonate: An infant from birth to 28 days of age.

Jaundice: Refers to the yellow discoloration of the skin and conjunctiva caused by deposition of bilirubin secondary to the bilirubin level in the blood and diagnosed by a physician.2,35

Physiological Jaundice: Total bilirubin value along with integrated management of newborn and childhood illness (IMNCI) clinical features of physiological jaundice was used to diagnose physiological jaundice. Neonates in the presence of one more of the established IMNCI criteria (only the skin on the face or eyes yellow and infant aged 2–13 days old) along with total bilirubin value ≤12mg/100mL in term babies and under 15mg/100 mL in preterm babies.36

Pathological Jaundice: Total bilirubin level together with IMNCI clinical features was used to diagnose pathological jaundice. The neonates having one or more of the established IMNCI criteria (palms or/and soles yellow or skin and yellow eyes within 24 hrs old or skin and eyes yellow, baby are ≥14 days old) and total bilirubin more than 12mg/100mL at term and more than 15mg/100mL in the preterm baby was defined as pathologic jaundice.35,36

Kernicterus: Defined based on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia of more than 340 Lmol/L in the term newborn or 200 Lmol/L in a preterm with features, such as poor sucking, vomiting, drowsiness, hypertonia, paralysis of upward gaze, high pitched cry, involuntary movements, and convulsions in the established category.37

Neonatal Sepsis: Defined based on the hematological criteria together with the IMNCI clinical features. The diagnostic criteria are based on one or more of the established IMNCI clinical features along with two or more hematological parameter abnormalities, such as total leukocyte count (4000 or >12,000 cells/m3), absolute neutrophil count (1500 cells/mm3 or >7500 cells/mm3), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (>15 mm/1 h), and platelet count (150 or >440 cells/m3).38

Rh incompatibility: Defined as neonates with a different Rh blood group with their mother’s as confirmed by laboratory testing.39

Event: Neonates who had developed jaundice up to discharge secondary to recovery or/and transferred to the pediatric ward.

Censored: Neonates who had not developed jaundice up to discharge due to recovery or/and transferred to the pediatric ward.

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