Semistructured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), field observation, and market surveys were used to collect data by using the method found in [17]. A semistructured interview and FGD were employed by using a checklist of questions initially prepared in English but translated into and presented in Amharic, which is the common language of the local community.

The informants were interviewed individually in the local Amharic language. Semistructured interviews included questions about name, age, gender, level of education, occupation, religion, nationality, District, Kebele, and peasant association of each informant. All semistructured interviews were followed by independent walk-in-the-woods exercises to pave a way for a detailed discussion with the informants. The informants were asked about local names, habitats, use diversities, parts used, collecting households, condition of plant part used (fresh/dried), ingredients used, mode of preparation, the threats, and traditional conservation practices of medicinal plants [19]. The informants were also asked about overall use values, diseases treated, methods of remedy preparation, dosage prescriptions and routes of remedy administration, other ingredients, source of knowledge about medicinal plants, and method of indigenous knowledge transfer as stated in [20].

A focus group discussion (comprising 7 participants) per Kebele (subdivision of the district) was undertaken to gain detailed information on plant knowledge at the community level and to supplement the information collected through semistructured interviews as shown in [17].

Field observations were performed with the help of local guides and some respondents of the local community for the purpose of practical identification of medicinal plants in the field.

Market surveys were conducted between 10 December 2017 and 7 May 2018. These surveys were conducted in the local marketplaces, namely Adet and Bir Gebeya (in the Yilmana Densa district) and Dabi (in the Quarit district). The purpose of the market survey was to record, document, and analyze the availability, price, and unit of measurement of traditional medicine and other useful plants following the method used in [19].

Medicinal plant specimens were collected, dried, numbered, labeled, pressed, identified, and deposited at the National Herbarium (ETH) in Addis Ababa University. Identification of the specimens was performed both in the field and by using “Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.” Plant specimen collection and preparation were made using the methods found in [19].

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