Dilute sulfuric acid 2% was used for the treated solution inside an autoclave and heated at a temperature of 121°C, for 30 minutes by 1 : 10 solid-to-liquid ratio pretreated inside an autoclave at 140°C for reaction time of 50 minutes [26, 27]. After cooling and filtered through a filter paper (Whatman no. 42), the filtrated contents were preserved in another conical flask and were kept in a refrigerator at 4°C for further use. The pretreated solid residues were washed twice by distilled water to remove sulfuric acid from it and dried before keeping for hydrolysis purpose. Stalk powder was fed as batches, and every batch contains 60 g of screened stalks powder with a ratio of 1 : 10 (w/v) sample to the water [12].

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