This is a multicentre study performed by three surgeons at three different institutions under the same operation technique and rehabilitation program. From January 2014 to December 2018, 158 consecutive ankles (129 patients) with varus osteoarthritis treated with SMO were retrospectively identified. The indications for SMO included symptomatic Takakura IIIa varus ankle arthritis characterised with medial gutter narrowing and varus lower limb alignment. Contraindications were Takakura IIIb varus ankle arthritis and end-stage ankle arthritis. Among these patients, 87 patients who were concurrent with a standing whole-leg anteroposterior radiograph including bilateral knee and ankle joints were evaluated. 11 patients were lost during follow-up, and 39 patients were excluded following the exclusion criteria. Finally, 47 ankles in 45 patients (17 men and 28 women) were chosen for the study (Figure 1). The mean age was 56.3 years (range, 44 to 75 years). Comparative analysis was performed using preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements among all included patients.

Flowchart showing the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the patients in this study.

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