The empty crucibles were weighed on an electronic balance before adding the sample. Then, 3 g of the sample was added in it. The sample and the crucible were placed in a muffle furnace for 30 min at 600°C. The crucible was removed from the furnace and placed in a desiccator to cool, and then the weight was reweighed until constant weight was obtained [23]. The volatile content was determined as follows:

where W1 = original weight of the sample (3 g); W2 = weight of the sample after cooling.

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