On post-surgery days 0, 28 and 30, the animals were subjected to the spontaneous rotation test. Apomorphine (APO, 0.5 mg/kg; cat. no. 017-18321; Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.) was injected intraperitoneally. The rats were placed on a circular platform (50 cm in diameter). Rotational speed was recorded for overall 30 min. Rotations were counted manually 10 min after the APO injection. The striatal dopamine receptors can be super-sensitized due to a marked decrease in striatal dopamine concentration by 6-OHDA injection. Therefore, apomorphine, which is a dopamine receptor agonist, injected into the peripheral tissues, can induce the rats to exhibit rotational behavior to the left. A rotation was defined as a complete full-body turn (360°) towards the left side of the rat with one hind-paw as center and without switching head direction. If the rat turns to the right side, this did not count. Rats that turned >7 times/min were considered to have developed PD in this model (31,32).

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