The main branch diameter was calculated in Matlab every 1.5 mm along the total length of the main branch. The radius was defined as the minimal distance from the skeleton to the segmented area boundary in the input binary mask (i.e. border between background and area of interest). This boundary was calculated using a two-step procedure. In the first step, the input map was eroded using a 3D spherical shaped structural element with one pixel radius. Subsequently, the eroded area was subtracted from the original binary mask. This resulted in a binary mask representing the boundary between the background and the area of interest. One radius value at a given skeleton point was then expressed as the minimum distance from that point to the mask boundary. This was calculated, using the minimal value search in the intersection of the boundary mask and the distance map from that point. The distance map from a given skeleton point was calculated as 3D Euclidean distance of the spatial coordinates. Subsequently the diameter value was calculated as the minimum distance to the boundary area multiplied by 2. To avoid any misrepresentation, the one final diameter value at a given point (every 1.5 mm of branch length) was calculated as a mean value of a diameter at that point and diameters at four neighboring points (two on each side). PV and BD diameters were divided into three areas: hilum, intermediate and periphery. Hilar region represents distance from 0 to 1.5 (sample #2401) or 0–3 mm (other samples), Intermediate region is from 3 to 6 mm (sample #2401) or 4.5 mm – 9 mm (other samples), Periphery is from 7.5 mm – 9 mm (sample #2401) or 10.5–13.5 mm (other samples). BD to PV diameter ratio was calculated by dividing BD diameter at a given region by PV dimeter of the same region.

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